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@INPROCEEDINGS{nalpanis85:saltation,
author = {P. Nalpanis and J. C. R. Hunt},
title = {Saltating and suspended particles over flat and sloping surfaces.
I. Modelling concepts. },
booktitle = {International Workshop on the Physics of Blown Sand},
pages = {9--35},
annote = {References for saltation trajectory crossing},
crossref = {BlownSand85}
}
@INPROCEEDINGS{willetts85:collisions,
author = {B. B. Willetts and M. A. Rice},
title = {Intersaltation Collisions},
booktitle = {International Workshop on the Physics of Blown Sand},
volume = {1},
pages = {83--100},
crossref = {BlownSand85}
}
@INPROCEEDINGS{OuIsKoKoYa67,
author = {\^{O}ura, H and Ishida, T and Kobayashi, D and Kobayashi, Sh and
Yamada, T},
title = {Studies on blowing snow. {II}.},
booktitle = {Physics of Snow and Ice. Proceedings of the International Conference
on Low Temperature Science, August 14--19, 1966, Sapporo. Volume
I, Part 2},
year = {1967},
editor = {\^{O}ura, H},
pages = {1099--1117},
address = {Sapporo, Japan},
publisher = {The Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University},
keywords = {Einfluss der Schwellengeschwindigkeit, Freilandbeobachtungen, Saltation,
Schneeverfrachtung, Transportraten, Windkanalexperimente, Windprofile,
,effektive Rauhigkeitsh\"{o}hen im Bereich 0.1,mm--3.3,nicht genau
prop. u\_*\^{}2},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{anderson91:wind,
author = {R. S. Anderson and P. K. Haff},
title = {Wind Modification and Bed Response During Saltation of Sand in Air},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
pages = {21--51},
annote = {2D DEM simulation of splash function for two sizes of particle. Number
of ejected grains is linear in impact velocity. For smaller grains
higher impact angles result in lower mean rebound angles. For larger
grains higher angles result in higher mean rebound angles. Show exponential
decay for rebound velocity. Contains full saltation simulation but
with some defects.},
code = {WT14}
}
@INPROCEEDINGS{araoka81:saltation,
author = {K. Araoka and N. Maeno},
title = {Dynamical Behaviour of Snow Particles in the Saltation Layer},
booktitle = {3rd Symposium on Polar Metereology \& Glaciology},
year = {1981},
number = {19},
pages = {253--263},
publisher = {Mem. Intl. Inst. Polar Res., Tokyo}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold73:water,
author = {R. A. Bagnold},
title = {The Nature of Saltation and of "Bed-Load" Transport in Water},
journal = PRSA,
year = {1973},
volume = {332},
pages = {473--504},
number = {1591},
annote = {Read properly. Good definition of the difference between saltation
and suspension. Suspension is ballistic trajectories. In suspension
fluid stress supports the particles. Saltation also occurs in laminar
flow.},
code = {WT37},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold62:suspension,
author = {R. A. Bagnold},
title = {Auto-Suspension of Transported Sediment; Turbidity Currents},
journal = PRSA,
year = {1962},
volume = {265},
pages = {315--319},
number = {1322},
annote = {Condition for currents to maintain itself is that the angle given
by the fall velocity and downslope motion is less than the slope
angle. Energetic approach to suspension.},
code = {WT47}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold56:cohesionless,
author = {R A Bagnold},
title = {The Flow of Cohesionless Grains in Fluids},
journal = PTRSA,
year = {1956},
volume = {249},
pages = {235--297},
number = {964},
month = {Dec},
annote = {Available online from jstor Excellent quote p.239 "Empirical knowledge
exists. Butit is limited to rather narrow and isolated ranges of
practical conditions covered mainly by the 'stream case' only. No
general underlying principles having emerged, it has not been possible
to predict anything useful about the bulk movement of grains under
unexperienced conditions, or to apply experimental knowledge obtained
from one set of coditions to another different set."},
code = {WT8},
whenread = {July 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold38:storm,
author = {R. A. Bagnold},
title = {The Measurement of Sand Storms},
journal = PRSA,
year = {1938},
volume = {167},
pages = {282--291},
number = {929},
annote = {Pitot probe measurements and sand transport rate profiles from the
desert in Western Egypt.$q = C \rho/g\sqrt{d/D} (v-v_T)^3/190 \log(z/k')^3$,$C=1.76$,
$d/D=1$ $\rho/g=1.25e-6$, $k'=0.01m$, $z=1m$, $V_t=400m/s$, $v$ is
wind speed at height $z$},
code = {WT49},
whenread = {October 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold37:size,
author = {R. A. Bagnold},
title = {The Size-Grading of Sand by Wind},
journal = PRSA,
year = {1937},
volume = {163},
pages = {250--264},
number = {913},
annote = {Good data on sand size distributions},
code = {WT50},
whenread = {October 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{bagnold36:movement,
author = {R. A. Bagnold},
title = {The Movement of Desert Sand},
journal = PRSA,
year = {1936},
volume = {157},
pages = {594--620},
number = {892},
annote = {Very early wind tunnel experiments on sand.},
code = {WT48},
whenread = {October 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{bintanja00:simulation,
author = {Richard Bintanja},
title = {Snowdrift Suspension And Atmospheric Turbulence. Part II: Results
Of Model Simulations},
journal = BLM,
year = {2000},
volume = {95},
pages = {369--395},
number = {3},
month = {June},
abstract = {Abstract An atmospheric surface-layer model is used to investigate
the interaction between suspended snow particles and the near-surface
flow. The model incorporates the effects of upward diffusion, gravitational
settling and sublimation of snow particles in 48 size classes, the
effects of snowdrift sublimation on the heat and moisture budget
of the surface layer, and the buoyancy destruction of turbulent kinetic
energy (TKE) caused by the presence of suspended particles. A new
term in the E- closure model representing the buoyancy destruction
due to suspended particles is included},
abstracta = {in the prognostic equation for TKE. Generally, model results indicate
that the presence of suspended particles causes significant decreases
in TKE, the dissipation rate, turbulent length scales and eddy exchange
coefficients (up to 40\%). It is found that the reduction in the
eddy exchange coefficients is due mainly to reductions in turbulent
length scales. The associated particle Richardson number peaks near
the saltation-suspension interface, but at higher levels in the surface
layer the particle-induced buoyancy can also significantly affect
the flow. A detailed analysis of the various snowdrift quantities,
the TKE budget and the particle buoyancy effects on the flow is presented.},
keywords = { Drifting snow, Suspended snow, Sublimation, Stratified flow},
whenread = {March 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{bishop02:dunes,
author = {S. R. Bishop and H. Momiji and R. Carretero-Gonz{\'a}lez and A. Warren.},
title = {Modelling desert dune fields based on discrete dynamics},
journal = {Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society},
year = {2002},
volume = {7},
pages = {7--17},
number = {1},
annote = {Discrete Lattice Dynamics 2D Model. Phenomenological. Predicts different
sorts of dunes depending on availability of sand and dominant wind
direction.},
code = {WT35},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{chamberlain83:roughness,
author = {A. C. Chamberlain},
title = {Roughness Length of Sea, Sand and Snow},
journal = BLM,
year = {1983},
volume = {25},
pages = {405--409},
annote = {Discusses roughness length for boundary layers over water and sand
and snow over land. Shows Bagnold's Libyan desert graph with different
profiles coming to a focus. But also shows graphs showing that $z_0
= 0.016u_*^2/g$ Charnock's equation is correct. If Bagnold's is correct
we can write $u(z) = u_f + u_*\log(z/z_f)$ where the subscript $z_f$
is Bagnold's focus height and $u_f$ the focus velocity.},
code = {WT6},
whenread = {December 1999}
}
@ARTICLE{charnock55:roughness,
author = {H. Charnock},
title = {Wind stress on a water surface},
journal = QJRMetSoc,
year = {1955},
volume = {81},
pages = {639-640},
annote = {Reports results from a reservoir showing that roughness length is
proportional to shear velocity squared. $u/u_*=1/\kappa \log(gz/u_*^2)
+ 12.5$},
code = {WT7},
whenread = {December 1999}
}
@ARTICLE{daerr03:erosion,
author = {A. Daerr and P. Lee and J.Lanuza and E. Clement},
title = {Erosion patterns in a sediment layer},
journal = PRE,
year = {2003},
volume = {67},
pages = { 065201},
abstract = {Many natural patterns coming from erosion have been described by geomorphologists.
Erosive patterns are common in situations implying dense sediment
transport, but so far, a complete understanding of all the physical
processes involved is still a challenging issue. We report here on
laboratory-scale experiments which reproduce a rich variety of natural
patterns[1] with few control parameters. In particular, we observe
intriguing rhomboid structures often found on sandy shores and flats.
It turns out that the standard views based },
abstracta = {on surface waves fall short to explain the phenomenon. We argue that
the small thickness of the flowing layer at the onset of grain carriage
instead leads to a strongly non-linear erosion-deposition process.
From the experimental parameters, the relevance of some possible
erosion mechanisms can be analyzed. Also using the same experimental
set-up we produce underwater avalanches displaying, in some cases,
a fingering instability of the front. We discuss the mechanisms leading
to the instability propose an analysis of the wave selection dynamics.},
code = {WT52}
}
@ARTICLE{dong02:impact,
author = {Zhibao Dong and Xiaoping Liu and Fang Li and Hongtao Wang and Aiguo
Zhao},
title = {Impact-entrainment relationship in a saltating cloud},
journal = ESPL,
year = {2002},
volume = {27},
pages = {641--658},
abstract = {The problem of impact-entrainment relationship is one of the central
issues in understanding saltation, a primary aeolian transport mode.
By using particle dynamic analyser measurement technology the movement
of saltating particles at the very near-surface level (1 mm above
the bed) was detected. The impacting and entrained particles in the
same impact-entrainment process were identified and the speeds, angle
with respect to the horizontal, and energy of the impacting and entrained
sand cloud were analysed. It was revealed that both the speed and
angle of impacting and entrained particles vary widely.},
abstracta = {The probability distribution of the speed of impacting and entrained
particles in the saltating cloud is best described by a Weibull distribution
function. The mean impact speed is generally greater than the mean
lift-off speed except for the 0?1-0?2 mm sand whose entrainment is
significantly influenced by air drag. Both the impact and lift-off
angles range from 0? to 180?. The mean lift-off angles range from
39? to 94? while the mean impact angles range from 40? to 78?, much
greater than those previously reported. The greater mean lift-off
and especially the mean impact angles are attributed to mid-air collisions
at},
abstractb = { the very low height, which are difficult to detect by conventional
high-speed photography and are generally ignored in the existing
theoretical simulation models. The proportion of backward-impacting
particles also evidences the mid-air collisions. The impact energy
is generally greater than the entrainment energy except for the 0?1-0?2
mm sand. There exists a reasonably good correlation of the mean speed,
angle and energy between the impacting and entrained cloud in the
impact-entrainment process. The results presented in this paper deserve
to be considered in modelling saltation.},
annote = {dasadsdas},
code = {WT53},
keywords = {saltation process , impact and entrainment speed , impact and entrainment
angle , impact and entrainment energy , velocity distribution},
whenread = {November 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{dong03:profile,
author = {Zhibao Dong and Xiaoping Liu and Hongtao Wang and Aiguo Zhao and
Xunming Wang},
title = {The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud: a wind tunnel investigation},
journal = Geomorph,
year = {2003},
volume = {49},
pages = {177--344},
number = {3-4},
abstarcta = { The true creep fraction, the ratio of the sand transported on the
surface (h=0) to the total transport varies widely, decreasing with
both sand size and wind speed. The flux profiles are converted to
straight lines by plotting sand transport rate, qh, on a log-scale.
The slope of the straight lines that represents the relative decay
rate with height of sand transport rate decreases with an increase
in free-stream wind velocity and sand grain size, implying that relatively
more of the blown sand is transported to greater heights as grain
size and wind speed increase. The average saltating height represented
by the height where 50\% of the cumulative flux percentage occurs
increases with both wind speed and grain size, implying that saltation
becomes more intense as grain size and/or wind velocity increase.},
abstract = { The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud, or the variation of blown
sand flux with height, is the reflection of blown sand particles
that move in different trajectories, and also the basis for checking
drifting sand. Here we report the wind tunnel results of systematic
tests of the flux profiles of different sized sands at different
free-stream wind velocities. The results reveal that within the 60-cm
near-surface layer, the decay of blown sand flux with height can
be expressed by an exponential function: qh=aexp(-h/b), where, qh
is the blown sand transport rate at height h, a and b are parameters
that vary with wind velocity and sand size. The significance of coefficient
a and b in the function is defined: a represents the transport rate
in true creep and b implies the relative decay rate with height of
the blown sand transport rate.},
annote = {dsasdaasd},
code = {WT55},
keywords = {Aeolian transport; Flux profile; Relative decay rate; Average saltation
height; Creep fraction},
whenread = {November 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{doorschot02:saltation,
author = {Judith J. Doorschot and Michael Lehning},
title = {Equilibrium Saltation: Mass Fluxes, Aerodynamic Entrainment, and
Dependence on Grain Properties},
journal = BLM,
year = {2002},
volume = {104},
pages = {111--130},
number = {1},
abstract = { An examination is given of the way in which the saltation layer is
affected by the characteristics of the particles. Special attention
is given to the potential importance of aerodynamic entrainment during
steady state saltation, a topic for which the discussion is still
unresolved. A new numerical model for saltation in steady state is
presented, which is focused on the computation of the horizontal
mass flux. The numerical computations, combined with physical arguments,
suggest that aerodynamic entrainment plays a more important role
than generally assumed so far. A comparison of the model results
is made with previous models, and with measurements of snow saltation
that have been reported in the literature.},
keywords = {Aerodynamic entrainment, Mass flux, Rebound, Saltation},
whenread = {March 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{DyAnIsKvMa77,
author = {Dyunin, A K and Anfilofiyev, B A and Istrapilovich, M G and Kvon,
Ya. D and Mamayeva, N T},
title = {Strong snow-storms, their effect on snow cover and snow accumulation},
journal = JGlac,
year = {1977},
volume = {19},
pages = {441--449},
number = {81},
keywords = { Schneesturm, Schneeverfrachtung,Schnee},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{eames2000:dust,
author = {I. Eames and S. B. Dalziel},
title = {Dust resuspension by the flow around an impacting sphere},
journal = JFM,
year = {2000},
volume = {403},
pages = {305--328},
annote = {Detailed discussion of the fluid flow around a sphere impacting a
surface, the vortices that are shed, and their effect on sediment
were closely measured. Talks about connection with saltation and
suspension},
code = {WT24},
whenread = {September 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{FoMe83,
author = {F\"{o}hn, P M B and Meister, R},
title = {Distribution of snow drifts on ridge slopes: {M}easurements and theoretical
approximations},
journal = AGlac,
year = {1983},
volume = {4},
pages = {52--57},
keywords = { Feldmessungen, Gaudergrat, Schwadendispersion mit Gaussschem Ansatz
ohne Ber, Schwarzhorngrat, Sondierungen, WE(Lee)/WE(Luv) = 1.5!-!2.
Starke Abh\"{a}ngigkeit , W\"{a}chten, ged\"{a}mpft-periodische Variation
der Schneeh\"{o}he, keine turbulente Dispersion),Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{FoHa92,
author = {Spencer B. Forrest and Peter K. Haff},
title = {Mechanics of Wind Ripple Stratigraphy},
journal = {Science New Series},
year = {1992},
optannote = {Mature sand ripples 7 to 14 cm wavelength, Mean number of ejected
grains per impact for sand diameter 0.23mm is 3 (0 to 7) at impact
speed of 2m/s to about 10 (0 to 22) at 6m/s. Slightly more grains
are ejected for larger sand 0.32mm. Ejection velocities 0.3-0.4 m/s
typically angle greater than 50^o. Impacting particle were all set
to 3 m/s and angle 11.5. Say that smaller ripples move faster since
they contain less material },
optcode = {WT30},
optnumber = {5049},
optpages = {1240--1243},
optvolume = {255},
optwhenread = {August 2002}
}
@PHDTHESIS{Ga99,
author = {Gauer, P},
title = {Blowing and {D}rifting {S}now in {A}lpine {T}errain: {A P}hysically-{B}ased
{N}umerical {M}odel and {R}elated {F}ield {M}easaurements},
school = {ETH Z\"{u}rich},
year = {1999},
address = {CH--8092 Z\"{u}rich, Switzerland},
month = apr,
annote = {Published as Mittlg. SLF No.58 by Eidg. Institut f\"{u}r Schnee-
und Lawinenforschung, CH--7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland},
keywords = { Gaudergrat, Partikeltrajektorien, R\"{u}ckkopplung, Saltationsschicht,
Suspensionsschicht, Verfrachtungsmessung, Windfeldmessung, numerische
Simulation,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{haff2,
author = {P. K. Haff and R. S. Anderson},
title = {Grain scale simulation of loose sedimentary beds: the example of
aeolian saltation impacts},
journal = Sed,
year = {1993},
volume = {40},
pages = {175-198},
code = {WT3}
}
@ARTICLE{haff1,
author = {P. K. Haff and R. S. Anderson},
title = {Wind modification and bed response during saltation of sand in air},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
pages = {21-51},
note = {Suppl.},
code = {WT2}
}
@ARTICLE{hellen02:ripples,
author = {E. K. O. Hell{\'}en and J. Krug},
title = {Coarsening of Sand Ripple in Mass Transfer Models},
journal = PRE,
year = {2002},
volume = {66},
pages = {011304},
number = {011304},
annote = {Considers mass exchange between adjacent ripples. Not very interesting.},
code = {WT44},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{higa1996:restitution,
author = {M. Higa and M. Arakawa and N. Maeno},
title = {Measurements of Restitution Coefficients of Ice at Low Temperatures},
journal = PlaSpaSci,
year = {1996},
volume = {44},
pages = {917-925},
number = {9},
annote = {15mm diameter spheres were dropped onto an ice block at temperatures
from 133--269K, speeds 0.01--7m/s. For v 0.3m/s saltation layer
is water-vapour saturated. Mean particle size falls off linearly
and then exponentially. Concentration fall off exponentially.},
code = {WT19},
whenread = {September 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{kosugi91:ripples,
author = {Kenji Kosugi and Kouichi Nishimura and Norikazu Maeno},
title = {Snow Ripples and Their Contributiuon to the Mass Transport in Drifting
Snow},
journal = BLM,
year = {1991},
pages = {59-66},
annote = { Wind tunnel experiments at -15^oC Ripple wavelength increased from
5 to 20cm, wave height from 3 to 5mm and velocity from 1 to 8 cm/min
as wind speed increased from 5 to 7 m/s. Sorting of large particles
in ridges, suggesting that the movement of snow ripples is caused
by creeping of large particles. Ripple movement was estimated to
account for 6\% of total mass transport rate. Snow density 410kg/m^3
mean size 0.42mm. Turbulent boundary layer is about 20cm. Log part
is 0.3 to 5cm. Gives wavelength, height and velocity as functions
of wind velocity. Large particles on the ridges. Small particle in
the troughs.},
code = {WT29},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{KuBoHo00,
author = {Douglas A. Kurtze and Joseph A. Both and Daniel C. Hong},
title = {Surface Instability in Windblown Sand},
journal = PRE,
year = {2000},
optannote = {Discusses nishimori93:ripples. changes to $L= L_0 +L_1 [h(x)-h(x+L)$
so reflect symmetry and give implicit equation. This should be critisised.
Since they ar combining mean effect. actualy most realistic would
be a term like h(x)-local_mean(h) ro reflect wind speed up.},
optcode = {WT44},
optnumber = {6},
optpages = {6750--6758},
optvolume = {61},
optwhenread = {August 2002}
}
@MISC{melvin:dunes,
author = {Melvin Boon-Tiong Leok},
title = {Modeling of Aeolian Processes in the Formation of Superimposed Sand
Dunes I},
annote = {Nice pictures of dunes. Very little description of the simulaltion},
code = {WT27},
url = {citeseer.nj.nec.com/515861.html}
}
@ARTICLE{maeno79:wind,
author = {N. Maeno and K. Araoka and K. Nishimura and Y. Kaneda},
title = {Physical aspects of the wind-snow interaction in blowing snow},
journal = JFacSciHokk,
year = {1979},
volume = {VII},
pages = {126--141},
number = {6}
}
@ARTICLE{eolian,
author = {N. Maeno and K. Nishimura and K. Sugiura},
title = {Grain size dependence os eolian saltation lengths during snow drifting},
journal = GRL,
year = {1995},
volume = {22},
pages = {2009-2012},
number = {15},
annote = {snow particle 0.01--1mm in diameter seperated every 0.05mm. 17 collectors
downwind of the saltation area. Wind velocities 5-10 m/s saltation
lengths 0.1-1m. Distribution for saltation length is monotone decreasing.
Triggered saltation by vibrating a snow block against a mesh. Collecting
boxes were 5 and 10cm wide. Two sorts of snow were used.},
code = {WT4},
whenread = {November 1999}
}
@PHDTHESIS{mann98:thesis,
author = {Graham William Mann},
title = {Surface Heat and Water Vapour Budgets over Antarctica},
school = {The University of Leeds, The Environment Centre},
year = {1998},
annote = {Huge analysis of data from Halley. Lot of emphasis on suspension
transport and sublimation. Suggests power law profile for particle
density. $(z/z_r)^{-a}$ where $a = 0.3056min(1,0.375/u^*)$. Threshold
friction velocity was between 0.1 and 0.3 m/s. Shows $u^*_T$ dependence
on temperature. Compares many mass transport formulae and shows that
they vary from 333 tonnes/m to 949 tonnes/m. Saltation flux rate
is always less than 3\% of suspension flux rate. mixing length $1/l=1/(k(z+z_0))+1/l_0$
where $l_0$ is about 40m. Mixing length is then scaled down by Richardson
Number as it is reduced by stable stratification. Describes complete
blowing snow simulation.},
optcode = {WT21},
whenread = {September 2001}
}
@MISC{masselot98lattice,
author = {A. Masselot and B. Chopard},
title = {A lattice boltzmann model for particle transport and deposition},
year = {1998},
annote = {lattice boltzmann simulation of the fluid flow. Length scale comes
from parameter choice},
code = {WT28},
text = {A. Masselot and B. Chopard. A lattice boltzmann model for particle
transport and deposition. Europhys. Lett., 42:259--264, 1998.},
url = {citeseer.nj.nec.com/masselot98lattice.html}
}
@ARTICLE{mcewan93:adaptation,
author = {Ian K. McEwan and Brian B. Willets},
title = {Adaptation of the near-surface wind to the development of sand transport},
journal = JFM,
year = {1993},
volume = {252},
pages = {99-115},
annote = {Good summary of papers in introduction. Effective surface roughness
is $Cu^2/(2g)$, where u is the shear velocity during saltation and
$C \approx 0.2$ (Owen) or $C=0.013$ (Charnock), or $C=0.0312$ (Wu),
$C=0.032$ (Hicks), $C=0.006-0.154$ Kitaigorodskii. Response time
1s from start of saltation to saturation. Internal boundary layer
height $x^{0.79}$. Discussion of their computer model.},
code = {WT9},
whenread = {July 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{mcewan91:initiation,
author = {I. K. McEwan and B. B. Willets},
title = {Initiation of motion of quartz sand grains},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
pages = {123--134},
annote = {Discusses aerodynamic entrainment. looked at the leading edge of
sand in a wind tunnel, Four friction velocities 0.43 0.47 0.50 \&
0.52 m/s. Threshold is 0.24m/s. Filmed using 1500 frame oer sec canera.
and trajectories mapped. About 50 samples per experiment. Particles
role for some distance until theu are moving fast enough to take
off, though a few take off directly.},
code = {WT12},
whenread = {July 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{mcewan91:model,
author = {I. K. McEwan and B. B. Willetts},
title = {Numerical model of the saltation cloud},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
pages = {53--66},
annote = {Describes Ian's computer simulation. Also has graphs of Willetts
and Rice's splash data for 98 collisions and velocity for additionally
splashed grains and number of grains},
code = {WT13}
}
@ARTICLE{mitha86:splash,
author = {S. Mitha and M. Q. Tran and B. T. Werner and P. K. Haff},
title = {The Grain-Bed Impact Process in Aeolian Saltation},
journal = ActaMech,
year = {1986},
volume = {63},
pages = {267--278},
annote = {Splash function. Used 4mm steel ball bearings. Density 7900Kg/m^3.
Impact speed 20m/s they say equivalent to 4-5m/s for .2mm sand. Used
60000 ball bearings and an air gun. Clear seperation into ricochet
and splash particle. Used strobes at two different frequencies to
calculate fast and slow particles. Contains distribution function
of splash data. The mean ration of ejection vertical speed to impact
vertical speedis always less than 0 but does increase with decreasing
impact angle. The smallest angle in the experiment was 17 degrees.},
code = {WT23},
whenread = {September 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{momiji02:profile,
author = {Hiroshi Momiji and Steven R Bishop},
title = {Estimating the Windward Slope Profile of a Barchan Dune},
journal = Sed,
year = {2002},
volume = {49},
pages = {467},
number = {3},
annote = {Barchan dunes are like crescents.Higher dunes have steeper slip slopes.
Higher dunes may be possible with higher wind speeds. Cross section
perpendicular to the wind is independent of dune size. Cross section
parallel to wind varies with dune size. Applies Jackson-Hunt theory
to fluid flow over hills less than about 11^o. Typical Barchan dunes
are 2--11^o. Considers cos shapped hills and gaussian shaped hills.
Lee slope is within this but effective symmetrical hill is related
to flow separation.},
code = {WT33},
whenread = {Preprint August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{momiji2000:speedup,
author = {Hiroshi Momiji and Ricardo Carretero-Gonz{\'a}lez and Steven R. Bishop
and Andrew Warren},
title = {Simulation of the Effect of Wind Speedup in the formation of Transverse
Dune Fields},
journal = ESPL,
year = {2000},
volume = {25},
pages = {905--918},
annote = {Discusses Warren's 1995 model of dunes. Discrete lattice approach.
Block of sand are moved around randomly specified by a distance scale
L and deposited with a probability depending on wind shadow. Slopes
greater than tan(33.7)=2/3 degrees avalanche. Basic simulation results
in symmetric dunes with windward slopes much to steep. Basic model
has erosion in shadow zones and deposition with probability 1. Modified
model increases u_8 on the top of dunes so that the length to move
blocks of sand becomes L=L_0 + a(h-h_0), where h_0 is reference dune
height and h is particular dune height. Model the produces dunes
with correct profile. Equates saltation length to L },
code = {WT32},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{momiji01:proto,
author = {Hiroshi Momiji and Hiraku Nishimori and Steven R. Bishop},
title = {On Shape and Migration Speed of a Proto-Dune},
journal = {unpublished},
year = {2001},
annote = {Proto-dunes are small dunes. Speed is inversely proportional to its
length in the wind direction, typically around 10m and 5cm to 10cm
high. Dune speed v = a + b/(c+h), where c is a new constant to give
low dunes finite speed.},
code = {WT36},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{momiji02:long,
author = {Hiroshi Momiji and Andrew Warren},
title = {The propagation of an error in Long and Sharp's (1964) data on barchan
dune movement},
journal = ESPL,
year = {2002},
volume = {27},
pages = {573-575},
number = {5},
annote = {aa},
code = {WT34},
whenread = {Augsust 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{momiji2000:trapping,
author = {Hiroshi Momiji and Andrew Warren},
title = {Relations of Sand Trap[ing Efficiency and Migratioon Speed of Transverse
Dunes to Wind Velocity},
journal = ESPL,
year = {2000},
volume = {25},
pages = {1069--1084},
annote = {aa},
code = {WT31},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{morsi1972:drag,
author = {S. A. Morsi and A. J. Alexander},
title = {An investigation of particle trajectories in two-phase flow systems},
journal = JFM,
year = {1972},
volume = {55},
pages = {193--208},
annote = {Considers drag on spheres and how they flow around aerofoils and
cylinders. $C_d = a+b/Re+c/Re^2$. constants a,b,c are given for different
ranges. Accurate to 1--2\%. This is a good choice for C_d because
the resulting Riccati equation can be exactly integrated. Does not
give an equation with sqrt(Re) dependence. Given function doesn't
actually look much like given graph},
code = {WT25},
whenread = {September 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{NaMa95,
author = {Naaim, M and Martinez, H},
title = {Experimental and theoretical determination of concentration profiles
and influence of particle characteristics in blowing snow},
journal = SurvGeophys,
year = {1995},
volume = {16},
pages = {695--710},
keywords = { Konzentrationsprofile,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{NaNaMa98,
author = {Naaim, M and Naaim-Bouvet, F and Martinez, H},
title = {Numerical simulation of drifting snow: erosion and deposition models},
journal = AGlac,
year = {1998},
volume = {26},
pages = {191--196},
keywords = { Deposition, Erosion, Turbulenz,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{nalpanis93:saltation,
author = {Philip Nalpanis and J. C. R. Hunt and C. F. Barrett},
title = {Saltating particles over flat beds},
journal = JFM,
year = {1993},
volume = {251},
pages = {661--685},
annote = {Measured impact and ejection velocities for two sizes of sand grains
with median diameters 0.118mm and 0.188mm density 2650kgm^{-3}. Velcity
calculated from multiple-image photograohs. Mean angle of ejection
is 30 degrees from horizontal. Mean vertical velocity is about $2u_*$
where $u_*$ is the friction velocity. Surface was hydraulically smooth
for $u_* 9 m s-1).
Though similar in appearance to an outer wake effect, direct solution
of Coles 'wake parameter indicates that this is not a wake phenomenon.
This departure is most likely ascribed to a wind tunnel constraint
on the downwind adjustment of a relatively thin boundary layer to
the effective roughness associated with the saltation cloud. Froude
numbers, computed for the high incident velocities where this departure
is most evident, exceed the conservative limit of 10 suggested by
White and Mounla (1991) for an equilibrium boundary layer.},
annote = {Department of Geography, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario,
K9J 7B8 Canada},
keywords = {Wind tunnel, Boundary layer, Wind profile, Saltation, Momentum extraction}
}
@ARTICLE{nia03:vertical,
author = {J. R. Nia and Z. S. Lia and C. Mendozac},
title = {Vertical profiles of aeolian sand mass flux},
journal = Geomorph,
year = {2003},
volume = {49},
pages = {177--344},
number = {3-4},
abstract = {Vertical profiles of the horizontal mass flux of blown sand are investigated
experimentally using a passive vertical array in a wind tunnel. Considering
lower sampling efficiency of the sand trap in the near-bed region,
this investigation is complemented by the measurements of the longitudinal
profiles of mass flux made using a horizontal sand trap. The experiments
were conducted with two test sands and five different stream velocities.},
abstracta = {In the upper part of the vertical profile, the measured data exhibit
an exponential decay distribution with a positive deviation occurring
in the near-bed region. The measured longitudinal profiles are similar
to the measured vertical profiles. Linking both profiles and the
modes of sand transport, it is possible that saltating sand grains
give rise to the well-known exponential decay distribution of mass
flux, and that creeping and reptating grains force a deviation from
it. A simple equation applicable for both the vertical and the longitudinal
sand mass flux variations is introduced and the parameters are estimated
from experimental data.},
annote = {dsadsa},
code = {WT54},
keywords = {Mass flux profile; Wind tunnel experiment; Sand trap; Trap efficiency},
whenread = {November 2003}
}
@ARTICLE{nickling88:entrainment,
author = {W. G. Nickling},
title = {The initiation of particle movement by wind},
journal = Sed,
year = {1988},
volume = {35},
pages = {499--511},
annote = {Describes an experiment where a laser beam was used to detect initial
entrainment of sand grains. Fits the data by $C=a/(u_*-b)^2$. $b=0.1622+470.1d$.
$d$ is diameter in metres. },
code = {WT17}
}
@ARTICLE{nishimori93:ripples,
author = {Hiraku Nishimori and Noriyuki Ouichi},
title = {Formation of Ripple Patterns and Dunes by Wind-Blown Sand},
journal = PRL,
year = {1993},
volume = {71},
pages = {197--200},
number = {1},
annote = {Ripple wavelnegth order 10cm. Cites Kawamura whose theory showed
wavelength linearly increases with wind strength. Simple theory grains
are mnoved a distance $L=L_0 + bh(x,y)$ where $h(x,y)$ is the height
at $h(x,y)$. Main distinction between ripples and dunes. In ripples
saltation heihgt is larger than ripple height. In dunes saltation
heights are insignificant. Model also has a creep step a bit like
$h \to h + D \nabla^2h$. Conversion to dune model makes flux $q =
q_0 + q_1 tanh (diff(h,x))$ and length $L= L_0-tanh (diff(h,x))$.
so that grains are more liekly to saltate un upwind slopes but go
less far.},
code = {WT38},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{nishimura00:saltation,
author = {K. Nishimura and J. C. R. Hunt},
title = {Saltation and Incipient Suspension Above a Flat Particle Bed Below
a Turbulent Boundary layer},
journal = JFM,
year = {2000},
volume = {417},
pages = {77--102},
annote = {As u^* increases from to 2u_T impact velocities and ejection velocities
(z \& y) start to decrease. This very surprising result is because
},
code = {WT20}
}
@ARTICLE{nishimori95:ripples,
author = {Noriyuki Bob Ouichi and Hiraku Nishimori},
title = {Modelling of wind-blown sand using cellular automata},
journal = PRE,
year = {1995},
volume = {52},
pages = {5877--5880},
number = {6},
annote = {Discusses segregation of the grains. Large grains are found on the
crest of the ripples and small grains in the troughs, if heavier
grains have a higher friction angle. If only difference in saltation
trajectories is included heavier grains tend to collect in troughs
and lighter grains on the crests.},
code = {WT40},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@MISC{pelletier2002:ripples,
author = {Jon D. Pelletier},
title = {A hierarchical model for the formation of eolian ripples, dunes,
and megadunes},
annote = {Wavelength depends on roughness length of the bed. Wavelength is
proportional to grain size and excess shear velocity squared. Proposes
that ripples, dunes and megadunes all form the same way. Similar
to water processes. Changed fluid flow leads to increased shear stress
in the depression. Ripple wavelength to ripple height is typically
20 for sand. No real maths.},
code = {WT26},
url = {citeseer.nj.nec.com/195275.html},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{pomeroy2000:prairie,
author = {Pomeroy, J. W. and L. Li},
title = {Prairie and Arctic areal snow cover mass balance using a blowing
snow model},
journal = JGR,
year = {2000},
volume = {D105},
pages = {26619--26634},
number = {21},
abstract = {Algorithms to calculate the threshold wind speed and the effect of
exposed vegetation on saltation and to describe vertical profiles
of humidity in blowing snow, permit the calculation of point blowing
snow transport and sublimation fluxes using standard meteorological
and landcover data or simple interfaces with climate models. Blowing
snow transport and sublimation fluxes can be upscaled to},
abstracta = { calculate open environment snow accumulation by accounting for their
variability over open snow fields, increase in transport and sublimation
with fetch, and the effect of exposed vegetation on partitioning
the shear stress available to drive transport. Blowing snow fluxes
scaled in this manner were used to calculate snow mass balance and
to simulate seasonal snow accumulation at a southern},
abstractb = { Saskatchewan prairie and an arctic site. Field measurements at these
sites indicated that from 48\% to 58\% of snowfall was removed by
blowing snow before melt began. Simulations suggest that the ratios
of snow removed and sublimated by blowing snow to that transported
were 2:1 and 1:1 at the prairie and arctic sites respectively. The
resulting methodology was capable of estimating winter season mass
balances for these snowpacks that compared well with snowfall and
snow accumulation measurements.}
}
@ARTICLE{prigozhin99:ripples,
author = {Leonid Prigozhin},
title = {Nonlinear Dynamics of Aeolian Sand Ripples},
journal = PRE,
year = {1999},
volume = {60},
pages = {729--733},
number = {1},
annote = {A continnnum model solved numerically. Some discussion of soliton
like interaction between ripples.},
code = {WT43},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{pwen64:saltation,
author = {P. R. Pwen},
title = {Saltation of uniform grains in air},
journal = JFM,
year = {1964},
pages = {225-242},
code = {WT18}
}
@UNPUBLISHED{rasmussen05:profile,
author = {Keld R. Rasmussen and Michael S{\o}rensen},
title = {Dynamics of particles in aeolian saltation},
note = {To appear in Powders and Grains 2005},
year = {2005},
annote = {Sand particle velocity profiles in a wind tunnel diameter 0.320mm.
Uses 1d laser doppler system. Problem of biasing from particle spin},
code = {WT56},
whenread = {March 2005}
}
@ARTICLE{rousseaux06:ripples,
author = {Germain Rousseaux},
title = {Physical distinction between rolling-grain ripples and vortex ripples:
An experimental study},
journal = PRE,
year = {2006},
volume = {74},
pages = {066305},
abstract = {We have performed an experimental study of the transition of rolling-grain
ripples toward vortex ripples. In particular, we have looked for
the influence of the grains\x{2019} diameter, the frequency of oscillation,
and the grains\x{2019} cohesion. We demonstrate that the rolling-grain
ripples are transient patterns which do appear as soon as we are
close to the threshold for grain motion, whereas vortex ripples are
always the final patterns observed and are the only patterns observed
if one is far from the threshold for grain motion. Our results show
that the \x{201C}elasticity\x{201D} (i.e., the tendency to modify
the wavelength by either compression or dilatation) of the vortex
ripples explains several discrepancies with respect to the observed
evolutions and measurements reported so far in the literature.},
code = {WT57},
doi = {DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.066305},
link = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.74.066305},
pacs = {45.70.Qj}
}
@ARTICLE{rumpel85:collisions,
author = {Dieter A Rumpel},
title = {Successive aeolian saltation: studies of idealized collisions},
journal = Sed,
year = {1985},
volume = {32},
pages = {267-280},
number = {2},
annote = {The number is a guess},
code = {WT16}
}
@ARTICLE{sorensen91:analytic,
author = {M. {S\o rensen}},
title = {An analytic model of wind-blown sand transport},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
annote = {Analytic model},
code = {WT15}
}
@ARTICLE{Sc86b,
author = {Schmidt, R A},
title = {Transport rate of drifting snow and the mean wind speed profile},
journal = BLM,
year = {1986},
volume = {34},
pages = {213--241},
keywords = { Messungen der Transportraten, Schwellengeschwindigkeiten, Vergleich
verschiedener Oberfl\"{a}chenbeschaffenheit, Windgeschwindigkeitsprofile,Schneetransport},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{Sc84,
author = {Schmidt, R A},
title = {Measuring particle size and snowfall intensity in drifting snow},
journal = CRST,
year = {1984},
volume = {9},
pages = {121--129},
keywords = { Partikelgr\"{o}ssenverteilung, Schneefall, Transportrate, photoelektrischer
Teilchendetektor,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{smedman91:turbulence,
author = {Smedman, Ann-Sofi.},
title = {Some Turbulence Characteristics in Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Flow},
journal = JAtmoSci,
year = {1991},
volume = {48},
pages = {856--868},
number = {6},
abstract = {Atmospheric boundary layer measurements during stable and near neutral
condition from seven sites in different kinds of terrain have been
analyzed in order to find relationships among turbulence parameters.
The shape of the spectral and cospectral distributions turned out
to be well represented by the universal expressions found for ideal
sites.
For near neutral conditions in the surface layer σw/u* increases and
σu/u* decreases with height. These results agree with previous result
found in the literature for both atmospheric and some wind tunnel
data.
The ratio σw/σu first increases and then decreases as stability increases
in the surface layer. This can be interpreted as a combined effect
of stability and the presence of the ground. In a stable layer well
above the ground σw/σu decreases monotonically with stability, in
accordance with laboratory measurements and numerical simulations
of free shear flow.
The ratio wθ/uθ was also investigated. For near neutral conditions
the ratio scatters around 0.2 with no apparent variation with height
or roughness. The stability dependence of this quantity is very similar
to that of the ratio of the vertical to the horizontal standard deviation
in the surface layer which first increases and then decreases with
increasing stability. Its neutral value in a free shear flow layer
is 0.8, decreasing rapidly with stability, in agreement with laboratory
data.},
annote = {Good discussion if turbulence statistics and energy budget in stable
boundary layer. Presure-velocity correlation terms convert horizontal
fluctuations to vertical and lateral ones. $\sqrt{\langle u^2 \rangle}
\approx 2.4 u_*(1+0.02\log h/z)$, where $h = u_*/f$},
code = {WT46}
}
@ARTICLE{sugiura2000:splash,
author = {K. Sugiura and N. Maeno},
title = {Wind-Tunnel Measurements Of Restitution Coefficients And Ejection
Number Of Snow Particles In Drifting Snow: Determination Of Splash
Functions},
journal = BLM,
year = {2000},
volume = {95},
pages = {123--143},
number = {1},
month = {April},
abstract = {Wind-tunnel experiments of drifting snow were carried out and splash
functions were formulated to describe probability distributions of
vertical restitution coefficient, horizontal restitution coefficient
and ejection number when a natural snow particle collided at a natural
snow surface. The following results were obtained: (1) The vertical
restitution coefficient was usually larger than unity and decreased
sharply with impact angle. At},
abstracta = { smaller impact angles around 5 degrees the vertical restitution coefficient
exceeded a magnitude of ten. (2) The horizontal restitution coefficient,
ranging from -1 to 1.5, decreased with impact velocity, but was not
clearly dependent on impact angle. (3) The ejection number amounted
to five per impact and increased with impact velocity. (4) Three
splash functions to express the probability distributions of the
vertical restitution coefficient, horizontal restitution coefficient
and ejection number were formulated, which will be used in future
computer simulations of the snow drifting process.},
annote = {Report of Sugiura's data on splash process},
whenread = {January 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{SuNiMaKi98,
author = {Konosuke Sugiura and Kouichi Nishimura and Norikazu Maeno and Tadashi
Kimura},
title = {Measurement of snow flux and transport rate at different particle
diameters in drfiting snow},
journal = CRST,
year = {1998},
optannote = {Friction velocities 0.15--0.39m/s. Particles measured with SPC at
heights 16-61mm. The mass flux for each particle diameter decreased
exponentially with height. Total snow transport increased as $u_*^3.96$
but the transport rate at any particular diameter approached 3. 8m
fetch. Excellent curves for exponential decay for particle flux with
height},
optcode = {WT5},
optpages = {83-89},
optvolume = {27},
optwhenread = {November 1998}
}
@ARTICLE{sumer81:particle,
author = {Mutlu Sumer and Rolf Deigaard},
title = {Particle motions near the bottom in turbulent flow in an open channel.
Part 2},
journal = JFM,
year = {1981},
volume = {109},
pages = {311-337},
annote = {paper is incomplete. Experiment of water in a flume flowing with
mean velocity of roughly 0.3m/s. Reynolds number based on depth is
21,000. Shear velocity was 0.0144m/s and 0.0219m/s for smooth and
rough cases respectively. Particles only with three different densities
were tracked in 3d using cameras and a strobe at 11.6Hz. Resolution
was 0.12mm 0.12mm 0.28mm. },
code = {WT10},
whenread = {July 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{Ta80b,
author = {Tabler, R D},
title = {Self-similarity of wind profiles in blowing snow allows outdoor modelling},
journal = JGlac,
year = {1980},
volume = {26},
pages = {421--434},
number = {94},
keywords = { L\"{a}ngen quadratisch mit Geschwindigkeiten, M\"{o}glichkeit f\"{u}r
skalierte Modelle gegeben, Rauhigkeitsh\"{o}he quadratisch mit Schergeschwindigk,
Windprofile,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{Ta80d,
author = {Takeuchi, M.},
title = {Vertical profile and horizontal increase of drift-snow transport},
journal = JGlac,
year = {1980},
volume = {26},
pages = {481--492},
number = {94},
abstract = {There are a number of published empirical formulae for drift-snow
transport as a function of wind velocity. Comparing these formulae
at the same wind velocity, however, results in considerable disagreement.
It is hypothesized that the disparity arises from snow conditions
and the various stages of development of drifting snow. The horizontal
distribution of drift flux was measured with snow traps along a transect
parallel with the wind, beginning at an up-wind boundary that served
as the starting point of drifting snow. Results indicate that drift-snow
transport cannot be defined uniquely unless the drifting snow attains
equilibrium (i.e. the snow profile is saturated). Saltation of snow
particles is thought to prevail near the snow surface. However, the
vertical flux profile of saltating snow has never been measured.
Vertical profiles of drift flux from the snow surface to a height
of 30 cm were measured at nine levels, using snow traps composed
of nine streamers (compartments). It appears that the saltation flux
prevails up to a height of 7--9 cm above the surface, and the suspension
flux gradually takes over as the drifting snow develops.},
file = {:Takeuchi.Drift-snow_transport.JGlac_26_1980.pdf:PDF},
keywords = { Abh\"{a}ngigkeit von der Distanz, Bedeutung der S\"{a}ttigungskonzentration,
Messungen des Driftflusses bis 30 cm H\"{o}he,Schneeverfrachtung},
owner = {di},
timestamp = {2013.10.15}
}
@ARTICLE{werner93:ripples,
author = {B. T. Werner and D. T. Gillespie},
title = {Fundamentally Discrete Stochastic Model for Wind Ripple Dynamics},
journal = PRL,
year = {1993},
annote = {Proposes a model where the ripples are discrete objects, shich advance
stochastically with probability inversely proprtional to their size.
Smaller ripples overtake larger ripples, so that the ripple wavelength
increases logarithmically. Not very realistic and inherently 1d.
However show graph of measurements where wavelength does increase.},
code = {WT39},
whenread = {August 2002}
}
@ARTICLE{haff3,
author = {B. T. Werner and P. K. Haff},
title = {The impact process in eolian saltation},
journal = Sed,
year = {1988},
volume = {35},
pages = {189-196},
code = {WT1}
}
@ARTICLE{white77:magnus,
author = {B R White and J C Shulz},
title = {Magnus Effect in Saltation},
journal = JFM,
year = {1977},
volume = {81},
pages = {497--512}
}
@ARTICLE{willets91:entrainment,
author = {B. B. Willets and I. K. McEwan and M. A. Rice},
title = {Initiation of motion of quartz sand grains},
journal = ActaMechSupp,
year = {1991},
volume = {1},
pages = {123--134},
annote = {Discusses aerodynamic entrainment. looked at the leading edge of
sand in a wind tunnel, Four friction velocities 0.43 0.47 0.50 \&
0.52 m/s. Threshold is 0.24m/s. Filmed using 1500 frame oer sec canera.
and trajectories mapped. About 50 samples per experiment. Particles
role for some distance until theu are moving fast enough to take
off, though a few take off directly.},
code = {WT12},
whenread = {July 2001}
}
@ARTICLE{wilson96:lagrangian,
author = {J. D. Wilson and B. L. Sawford},
title = {Lagrangian stochastic models for trajectories in the turbulent atmosphere},
journal = BLM,
year = {1996},
volume = {78},
pages = {191--210}
}
@PROCEEDINGS{BlownSand85,
title = {International Workshop on the Physics of Blown Sand},
year = {1985},
editor = {O. E. Barndorff-Nielsen},
publisher = {Mem. 8. University of Aarhus, Denmark}
}